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Tuesday, May 15, 2018

The Turtle

Here are some images of Mir's 1/35 scale Turtle from the American revolutionary war.
Upon opening this kit I was quite surprised and a little disappointed as to how small the kit was.
That and the small number of parts, so what to do.
First I completely scratched out a new top made totally out of brass. Then I added a barrel to replace the simple box that came with the kit. I then added the chain and rings.
The display base was made from wooden ship spare parts I had.
It's a very small model but pretty.

From Wikipedia"
Turtle (also called American Turtle) was the world's first submersible vessel with a documented record of use in combat. It was built in 1775 by American David Bushnell as a means of attaching explosive charges to ships in a harbor, for use against British Royal Navy vessels occupying North American harbors during the American Revolutionary War. Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull recommended the invention to George Washington, who provided funds and support for the development and testing of the machine.
Several attempts were made using Turtle to affix explosives to the undersides of British warships in New York Harbor in 1776. All failed, and her transport ship was sunk later that year by the British with the submarine aboard. Bushnell claimed eventually to have recovered the machine, but its final fate is unknown. Modern replicas of Turtle have been constructed and are on display in the Connecticut River Museum, the U.S. Navy's Submarine Force Library and Museum, the Royal Navy Submarine Museum, and the Oceanographic Museum (Monaco).

The American inventor David Bushnell conceived of the idea of a submersible for use in lifting the British naval blockade during the American War of Independence. Bushnell may have begun studying underwater explosions while at Yale College. By early 1775, he had created a reliable method for detonating underwater explosives, a clockwork connected to a musket firing mechanism, probably a flintlock, adapted for the purpose.
After the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, Bushnell began work near Old Saybrook on a small, individually-manned submersible designed to attach an explosive charge to the hull of an enemy ship, which, he wrote Benjamin Franklin, would be, “Constructed with Great Simplicity and upon Principles of Natural Philosophy.”
Little is known about the origin, inspiration, and influences for Bushnell’s invention. It seems clear Bushnell knew of the work of the Dutch inventor Cornelius Drebbel.
According to Dr. Benjamin Gale, a doctor who taught at Yale, the many brass and mechanical (moving) parts of the submarine were built by the New Haven clock-maker, engraver, silversmith, brass manufacturer and inventor Isaac Doolittle, whose shop was just a half block from Yale. Though Bushnell is given the overall design credit for the Turtle by Gale and others, Doolittle was well known as an "ingenious mechanic" (i.e. an engineer), engraver, and metalworker. He had both designed and manufactured complicated brass-wheel hall-clocks, a mahogany printing-press in 1769 (the first made in America, after Doolittle successfully duplicated the iron screw), brass compasses, and surveying instruments. He also founded and owned a brass foundry where he cast bells. At the start of the American Revolution, the wealthy and patriotic Doolittle built a gunpowder mill with two partners in New Haven to support the war, and was sent by the Connecticut government to prospect for lead.
Though the design of the Turtle was necessarily shrouded in secrecy, based on his mechanical engineering expertise and previous experience in design and manufacturing, it seems Doolittle designed and crafted (and probably funded) the brass and the moving parts of the Turtle, including the propulsion system, the navigation instruments, the brass foot operated water-ballast and forcing pumps, the depth gauge and compass, the brass crown hatch, the clockwork detonator for the mine, and the hand operated propeller crank and foot-driven treadle with flywheel. According to a letter from Benjamin Gale to Benjamin Franklin, Doolittle also designed the mine attachment mechanism, "those Parts which Conveys the Powder, and secures the same to the Bottom of the Ship". The most historically important innovation in the Turtle was the propeller, as it was the first known use of one in a watercraft: it was described as an "oar for rowing forward or backward", with "no precedent" design. As it was probably brass, it was thus likely forged if not designed by Doolittle. Doolittle also likely provided the scarce commodities of gunpowder and lead ballast as well. The wealthy Doolittle, nearly 20 years older than the Yale student Bushnell, was a founder and long time Warden of Trinity Episcopal Church on the Green,, and was in charge of New Haven's port inspection and beacon-alarm systems – suggesting that Doolittle provided much of the political and financial leadership in building the Turtle as well as its brass and moving parts.
In making the hull, Bushnell enlisted the services of several skilled artisans, including his brother the farmer Ezra Bushnell and ship's carpenter Phineas Pratt, both, like David Bushnell, from Saybrook.. The hull was “constructed of oak, somewhat like a barrel and bound by heavy wrought-iron hoops.” The shape of the hull, Gale informed Silas Deane, “has the nearest resemblance to the two upper shells of a Tortoise joined together.”
This 19th-century diagram shows the side views of Turtle. It incorrectly depicts the propeller as a screw blade; as seen in the replica photographed above and reported by Sergeant Lee, it was a paddle propeller blade.
Named for its shape, Turtle resembled a large clam as much as a turtle; it was about 10 feet (3.0 m) long (according to the original specifications), 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, and about 3 feet (0.9 m) wide, and consisted of two wooden shells covered with tar and reinforced with steel bands. It dived by allowing water into a bilge tank at the bottom of the vessel and ascended by pushing water out through a hand pump. It was propelled vertically and horizontally by hand-cranked propellers. It also had 200 pounds (91 kg) of lead aboard, which could be released in a moment to increase buoyancy. Manned and operated by one person, the vessel contained enough air for about thirty minutes and had a speed in calm water of about 3 mph (2.6 kn; 4.8 km/h).
A diagram showing the front and rear of Turtle
Six small pieces of thick glass in the top of the submarine provided natural light. The internal instruments had small pieces of bioluminescent foxfire affixed to the needles to indicate their position in the dark. During trials in November 1775, Bushnell discovered that this illumination failed when the temperature dropped too low. Although repeated requests were made to Benjamin Franklin for possible alternatives, none was forthcoming, and Turtle was sidelined for the winter.
Bushnell's basic design included some elements present in earlier experimental submersibles. The method of raising and lowering the vessel was similar to that developed by Nathaniel Simons in 1729, and the gaskets used to make watertight connections around the connections between the internal and external controls also may have come from Simons, who constructed a submersible based on a 17th-century Italian design by Giovanni Alfonso Borelli.

Sunday, May 13, 2018

Airco DH.9A (Ninak)

Here are some images of Wingnut Wings 1/32 scale Airco DH.9A Ninak light bomber.
This aircraft served with 99 Sqn October 1918.

From Wikipedia"
The Airco DH.9A was a British single-engined light bomber designed and first used shortly before the end of the First World War. It was a development of the unsuccessful Airco DH.9 bomber, featuring a strengthened structure and, crucially, replacing the under-powered and unreliable inline 6-cylinder Siddeley Puma engine of the DH.9 with the American V-12 Liberty engine.
Colloquially known as the "Ninak" (from the phonetic alphabet treatment of designation "nine-A"), it served on in large numbers for the Royal Air Force following the end of the war, both at home and overseas, where it was used for colonial policing in the Middle East, finally being retired in 1931. Over 2,400 examples of an unlicensed version, the Polikarpov R-1, were built in the Soviet Union, the type serving as the standard Soviet light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft through the 1920s.

The DH.9A was planned as an improved version of the existing Airco DH.9. The DH.9 was a disappointment owing to its under-performing and unreliable engines, and the DH.9A was to use a more powerful engine to resolve this. As the Rolls-Royce Eagle engine used in the successful DH.4 was unavailable in sufficient quantities, the new 400 hp (298 kW) American Liberty engine was chosen instead.
As Airco was busy developing the Airco DH.10 twin-engined bomber, detailed design was carried out by Westland Aircraft. The DH.9 was fitted with new, longer-span wings and a strengthened fuselage structure.
The first prototype flew in March 1918, powered by a Rolls-Royce Eagle as no Liberty engines were yet available. The prototype proved successful, with the first Liberty-engined DH.9A flying on 19 April 1918, and deliveries to the Royal Air Force starting in June. By the end of the war, a total of 2,250 DH.9As had been ordered, with 885 being built by the end of the year. As it was decided that the DH.9A would be a standard type in the postwar RAF, the majority of outstanding orders were fulfilled, with 1,730 being built under the wartime contracts before production ceased in 1919.
While the existing aircraft were subject to a programme of refurbishment, a number of small contracts were placed for new production of DH.9As in 1925–26. These contracts resulted in a further 268 DH.9As being built. The new production and refurbished aircraft included batches of dual control trainers, as well as six aircraft powered by 465 hp Napier Lion engines, which were capable of a maximum speed of 144 mph.
The Soviet Union built large numbers of an unlicensed copy of the DH.9A, the R-1. After the production of 20 DH.4 copies, followed by about 200 copies of the DH.9 powered by the Mercedes D.IV engine (also designated R-1) and a further 130 powered by the Siddeley Puma (designated R-2), a copy of the DH.9A powered by the M-5 engine, a Soviet copy of the DH.9A's Liberty, entered production in 1924.

US version and pressurised flights

The United States also planned to adopt the DH.9A as a replacement for the DH.4. Development work on the Americanization of the aircraft commenced at McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio. Modifications included a new fuel system with increased fuel capacity, revised wings and tail surfaces, and replacement of the Vickers machine gun on the port side of the British built aircraft with a Browning machine gun on the starboard side. Plans called for Curtiss to build 4,000 modified aircraft, designated USD-9A. This order was cancelled with the end of the war and only nine were built by McCook Field and Dayton-Wright. One McCook aircraft was additionally modified with an enclosed, pressurised cockpit. In 1921, test pilot Lt. Harold R. Harris made the world's first high-altitude flight in a pressurised aircraft in the USD-9A at McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio.

First World War

The DH.9A entered service in July 1918 with No. 110 Squadron RAF, moving to France on 31 August 1918 to serve with the RAF's Independent Air Force on strategic bombing missions. Its first mission was against a German airfield on 14 September 1918. A further three squadrons commenced operations over the Western Front before the Armistice, with 99 Squadron (also serving with the Independent Air Force) replacing DH.9s, while 18 Squadron and 216 Squadron replaced DH.4s. Despite the superior performance of the DH.9A over the DH.9, the DH.9A squadrons suffered high losses during their long range bombing missions over Germany. Other squadrons flew coastal patrols from Great Yarmouth before the end of the year.
The United States Marine Corps Northern Bombing Group received at least 53 DH-9As, and commenced operations in September 1918.

Interwar RAF service

While the squadrons in service at the end of the First World War quickly disbanded or re-equipped in the postwar dis-armament, the DH.9A continued in service as the RAF's standard light bomber, with 24 squadrons being equipped between 1920 and 1931, both at home and abroad.
The first post war operations were in southern Russia in 1919, in support of the "White Army" against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War. In September 1919, the RAF personnel were ordered to return home, leaving their aircraft behind. A squadron of DH.9As was deployed to Turkey in response to the Chanak Crisis in 1922, but did not engage in combat.
The DH.9A was one of the key weapons used by Britain to manage the territories that were in its control following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following the Great War. Five squadrons of DH.9As served in the Middle East, occasionally carrying out bombing raids against rebellious tribesmen and villages. An additional radiator was fitted under the fuselage to cope with the high temperatures, while additional water containers and spares (including spare wheels lashed to the fuselage) were carried in case the aircraft were forced down in the desert, the DH.9A's struggling under ever heavier loads. Despite this the aircraft served successfully, with the Liberty engine being picked out for particular praise for its reliability ("as good as any Rolls Royce") in such harsh conditions. Some DH.9A aircraft were also transported to India to supplement the British Indian Army.
At home, the DH.9A continued on in regular RAF service until 1930, also forming the initial equipment of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force (RAuxAF).

Soviet service

The R-1 and R-2 were heavily used by the Soviet Air Forces through the 1920s as its standard light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. The Soviets deployed them in support of the Chinese Kuomintang forces in the Northern Expedition against warlords in 1926–27, and against Chinese forces for control of the Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria in 1929. R-1s and R-2s were also used in support of operations during the Basmachi Revolt in central Asia.

Monday, May 7, 2018

North American T-28 C Trojan Target Tug

Here are some images of Kitty Hawk Models 1/32 scale North American T-28 C Trojan (Target Tug).


From Wikipedia"
The North American Aviation T-28 Trojan is a piston-engined military trainer aircraft used by the United States Air Force and United States Navy beginning in the 1950s. Besides its use as a trainer, the T-28 was successfully employed as a counter-insurgency aircraft, primarily during the Vietnam War. It has continued in civilian use as an aerobatics and Warbird performer.

On September 24, 1949, the XT-28 (company designation NA-159) was flown for the first time, designed to replace the T-6 Texan. The T-28A arrived at the Air Proving Ground, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in mid-June 1950, for suitability tests as an advanced trainer by the 3200th Fighter Test Squadron, with consideration given to its transition, instrument, and gunnery capabilities. Found satisfactory, a contract was issued and between 1950 and 1957, a total of 1,948 were built.
Following the T-28's withdrawal from U.S. military service, a number were remanufactured by Hamilton Aircraft into two versions called the Nomair. The first refurbished machines, designated T-28R-1 were similar to the standard T-28s they were adapted from, and were supplied to the Brazilian Navy. Later, a more ambitious conversion was undertaken as the T-28R-2, which transformed the two-seat tandem aircraft into a five-seat cabin monoplane for general aviation use. Other civil conversions of ex-military T-28As were undertaken by PacAero as the Nomad Mark I and Nomad Mark II

After becoming adopted as a primary trainer by the USAF, the United States Navy and Marine Corps adopted it as well. Although the Air Force phased out the aircraft from primary pilot training by the early 1960s, continuing use only for limited training of special operations aircrews and for primary training of select foreign military personnel, the aircraft continued to be used as a primary trainer by the Navy (and by default, the Marine Corps and Coast Guard) well into the early 1980s.
The largest single concentration of this aircraft was employed by the U.S. Navy at Naval Air Station Whiting Field in Milton, Florida, in the training of student naval aviators. The T-28's service career in the U.S. military ended with the completion of the phase-in of the T-34C turboprop trainer. The last U.S. Navy training squadron to fly the T-28 was VT-27 “Boomers”, based at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Texas, flying the last T-28 training flight in early 1984. The last T-28 in the Training Command, BuNo 137796, departed for Naval District Washington on 14 March 1984 to be displayed permanently at Naval Support Facility Anacostia, D.C.[

In 1963, a Royal Lao Air Force T-28 piloted by Lieutenant Chert Saibory, a Thai national, defected to North Vietnam. Saibory was immediately imprisoned and his aircraft was impounded. Within six months the T-28 was refurbished and commissioned into the North Vietnamese Air Force as its first fighter aircraft.
T-28s were supplied to the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in support of ARVN ground operations, seeing extensive service during the Vietnam War in VNAF hands, as well as the Secret War in Laos. A T-28 Trojan was the first US fixed wing attack aircraft (non-transport type) lost in South Vietnam, during the Vietnam War. Capt. Robert L. Simpson, USAF, Detachment 2A, 1st Air Commando Group, and Lt. Hoa, SVNAF, were shot down by ground fire on August 28, 1962 while flying close air support. Neither crewman survived. The USAF lost 23 T-28s to all causes during the war, with the last two losses occurring in 1968.
T-28s were used by the CIA in the former Belgian Congo during the 1960s.
France's Armée de l'Air used locally re-manufactured Trojans for close support missions in Algeria.
Nicaragua replaced its fleet of 30+ ex Sweden P-51s with T-28s in the early 1960s.[citation needed]
The Philippines utilized T-28s (colloquially known as "Tora-toras") during the 1989 Philippine coup attempt. The aircraft were often deployed as dive bombers by rebel forces.[citation needed]

AeroVironment modified and armored a T-28A to fly weather research for South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, funded by the National Science Foundation, and operated in this capacity from 1969 to 2005.[9][10] SDSM&T is currently planning to replace it with another modified, but more modern, former military aircraft, specifically a Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II.[11]
 Many retired T-28s were subsequently sold to private civil operators, and due to their reasonable operating costs are often found flying or displayed as warbirds today.
On Saturday, September 17, 2011 at about 14:40 EDT, a civilian-owned Trojan belonging to the T-28 Warbird Aerobatic Formation Demonstration Team, known as the Trojan Horsemen, was lost as they were performing during an air show hosted by the 167th Airlift Wing of the West Virginia Air National Guard at Shepherd Field in Martinsburg, West Virginia. Pilot Jack "Flash" Mangan, a businessman who had previously risen to the rank of Major in the USAF and had been awarded three Meritorious Service Medals as well as the Fighter Pilot of the Year Award in 1984, was killed on impact. The Trojan Horsemen team stood down, but temporarily resumed flying on November 11, 2011.
On Sunday, July 17, 2016 at approximately 14:00 MDT, a privately owned T-28B Trojan with Canadian registration C-GKKD performed what appeared to be a loop during an aerobatic routine at the 2016 CFB Cold Lake Air Show and plummeted nose-first into the ground. The aircraft, which had been manufactured in 1955 and was originally assigned to US Navy Squadron VT-27 “Boomers” with BuNo 138364, had retained its historic 1970s era US Navy white-and-orange training livery with identification number 706 and VT-27 on the fuselage and a capitalized letter D on the vertical stabilizer, and was destroyed on impact. Pilot Bruce Evans, an accomplished Warbird flier with over 4,100 hours of flight experience and president of Firefly Aviation, was killed instantly.


T-28C
U.S. Navy version, a T-28B with shortened propeller blades and tailhook for carrier-landing training; 266 built.

Thursday, May 3, 2018

CSS H.L. Hunley

Here are some images of Mir's 1/35 scale CSS H.L. Hunley Civil War submarine.

From Wikipedia"
H. L. Hunley, often referred to as Hunley, was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that played a small part in the American Civil War. Hunley demonstrated the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. She was the first combat submarine to sink a warship (USS Housatonic), although Hunley was not completely submerged and, following her successful attack, was lost along with her crew before she could return to base. The Confederacy lost 21 crewmen in three sinkings of Hunley during her short career. She was named for her inventor, Horace Lawson Hunley, shortly after she was taken into government service under the control of the Confederate States Army at Charleston, South Carolina.
Hunley, nearly 40 feet (12 m) long, was built at Mobile, Alabama, and launched in July 1863. She was then shipped by rail on August 12, 1863, to Charleston. Hunley (then referred to as the "fish boat", the "fish torpedo boat", or the "porpoise") sank on August 29, 1863, during a test run, killing five members of her crew. She sank again on October 15, 1863, killing all eight of her second crew, including Horace Hunley himself, who was aboard at the time, even though he was not a member of the Confederate military. Both times Hunley was raised and returned to service.
On February 17, 1864, Hunley attacked and sank the 1,240-displacement ton United States Navy screw sloop-of-war USS Housatonic, which had been on Union blockade-duty in Charleston's outer harbor. The Hunley did not survive the attack and also sank, taking with her all eight members of her third crew, and was lost.
Finally located in 1995, Hunley was raised in 2000 and is on display in North Charleston, South Carolina, at the Warren Lasch Conservation Center on the Cooper River. Examination, in 2012, of recovered Hunley artifacts suggests that the submarine was as close as 20 feet (6 meters) to her target, Housatonic, when her deployed torpedo exploded, which caused the submarine's own loss.

Construction of the Hunley began soon after the loss of the American Diver. At this stage, the Hunley was variously referred to as the "fish boat", the "fish torpedo boat", or the "porpoise". Legend held that the Hunley was made from a cast-off steam boiler — perhaps because a cutaway drawing by William Alexander, who had seen her, showed a short and stubby machine. In fact, the Hunley was designed and built for her role, and the sleek, modern-looking craft shown in R.G. Skerrett's 1902 drawing is an accurate representation. The Hunley was designed for a crew of eight, seven to turn the hand-cranked propeller and one to steer and direct the boat. Each end was equipped with ballast tanks that could be flooded by valves or pumped dry by hand pumps. Extra ballast was added through the use of iron weights bolted to the underside of the hull. In the event the submarine needed additional buoyancy to rise in an emergency, the iron weight could be removed by unscrewing the heads of the bolts from inside the vessel.
The Hunley was equipped with two watertight hatches, one forward and one aft, atop two short conning towers equipped with small portholes and slender, triangular cutwaters. The hatches, bigger than original estimates, measure about 16.5 inches wide and nearly 21 long (42 by 53 centimeters), making entrance to and egress from the hull difficult. The height of the ship's hull was 4 feet 3 inches (1.30 m).
By July 1863, the Hunley was ready for a demonstration. Supervised by Confederate Admiral Franklin Buchanan, the Hunley successfully attacked a coal flatboat in Mobile Bay. Following this, the submarine was shipped by rail to Charleston, South Carolina, arriving on August 12, 1863.
However, the Confederate military seized the submarine from her private builders and owners shortly after arriving, turning her over to the Confederate Army. The Hunley would operate as a Confederate Army vessel from then on, although Horace Hunley and his partners would remain involved in her further testing and operation. While sometimes referred to as the CSS Hunley, she was never officially commissioned into service.
Confederate Navy Lieutenant John A. Payne of CSS Chicora volunteered to be Hunley's captain, and seven men from Chicora and CSS Palmetto State volunteered to operate her. On August 29, 1863, The Hunley's new crew was preparing to make a test dive, when Lieutenant Payne accidentally stepped on the lever controlling the sub's diving planes as she was running on the surface. This caused the Hunley to dive with her hatches still open. Payne and two others escaped, but the other five crewmen drowned.
The Confederate Army took control of the Hunley, with all orders coming directly from General P. G. T. Beauregard, with Lt. George E. Dixon placed in charge. On October 15, 1863, the Hunley failed to surface after a mock attack, killing all eight crewmen. Among these was Hunley himself, who had joined the crew for the exercise and possibly had taken over command from Dixon for the attack maneuver. The Confederate Navy once more salvaged the submarine and returned her to service.

The Hunley was originally intended to attack by using a floating explosive charge with a contact fuse (a torpedo in 19th century terminology) which was towed at the end of a long rope. The Hunley was to approach an enemy ship on the surface, then dive under her, and surface again once beyond her. The torpedo would be drawn against the targeted ship and explode. This plan was discarded as dangerous because of the possibility of the tow line fouling the Hunley's screw or drifting into the submarine herself.
Instead, a spar torpedo -- a copper cylinder containing 135 pounds (61 kilograms) of black powder -- was attached to a 22-foot (6.7 m)-long wooden spar, as seen in illustrations made at this time. Mounted on the Hunley's bow, the spar was to be used when the submarine was 6 feet (1.8 m) or more below the surface. Previous spar torpedoes had been designed with a barbed point: the spar torpedo would be jammed in the target's side by ramming, and then detonated by a mechanical trigger attached to the submarine by a line, so that as she backed away from her target, the torpedo would set off. However, archaeologists working on Hunley discovered evidence, including a spool of copper wire and components of a battery, that it may actually have been electrically detonated. In the configuration used in the attack on the Housatonic, it appears the Hunley's torpedo had no barbs, and was designed to explode on contact as it was pushed against an enemy vessel at close range. After Horace Hunley's death, General Beauregard ordered that the submarine should no longer be used to attack underwater. An iron pipe was then attached to her bow, angled downwards so the explosive charge would be delivered sufficiently under water to make it effective. This was the same method developed for the earlier "David" surface attack craft used successfully against the USS New Ironsides. The Confederate Veteran of 1902 printed a reminiscence authored by an engineer stationed at Battery Marshall who, with another engineer, made adjustments to the iron pipe mechanism before the Hunley left on her last fatal mission on February 17, 1864. A drawing of the iron pipe spar, confirming her "David" type configuration, was published in early histories of submarine warfare.

The Hunley made her only attack against an enemy target on the night of February 17, 1864. The target was the USS Housatonic, a 1,240 long tons (1,260 t) wooden-hulled steam-powered sloop-of-war with 12 large cannons, which was stationed at the entrance to Charleston, about 5 miles (8.0 kilometres) offshore. Desperate to break the naval blockade of the city, Lieutenant George E. Dixon and a crew of seven volunteers successfully attacked the Housatonic, ramming the Hunley's only spar torpedo against the enemy's hull. The torpedo was detonated, sending the Housatonic to the bottom in five minutes, along with five of her crewmen.
Years later, when the area around the wreck of the Housatonic was surveyed, the sunken Hunley was found on the seaward side of the sloop, where no one had considered looking before. This later indicated that the ocean current was going out following the attack on the Housatonic, taking the Hunley with her to where she was eventually found and later recovered.

After the attack, the H.L. Hunley failed to return to her base. At one point there appeared to be evidence that Hunley survived as long as one hour following the attack at about 8:45 p.m. The day after the attack, the commander of "Battery Marshall" reported that he had received "the signals" from the submarine indicating she was returning to her base. The report did not say what the signals were. A postwar correspondent wrote that "two blue lights" were the prearranged signals, and a lookout on the Housatonic reported he saw a "blue light" on the water after his ship sank."Blue light" in 1864 referred to a pyrotechnic signal in long use by the U.S. Navy. It has been falsely represented in published works as a blue lantern; the lantern eventually found on the recovered H.L. Hunley had a clear, not a blue, lens. Pyrotechnic "blue light" could be seen easily over the four-mile distance between Battery Marshall and the site of the Hunley's attack on the Housatonic.
After signaling, Dixon's plan would have been to take his submarine underwater to make a return to Sullivan's Island. Although at one point the finders of the Hunley suggested she was unintentionally rammed by USS Canandaigua when that warship was going to rescue the crew of Housatonic, no such damage was found when she was raised from the bottom of the harbor. Instead, all evidence and analysis eventually pointed to the instantaneous death of the Hunley's entire crew at the moment of the spar torpedo's contact with the hull of the Housatonic from the explosion's shock wave which destroyed their lungs and brain tissue in milliseconds. In October 2008, scientists reported they had found that the crew of Hunley had not set her pump to remove water from the crew's compartment, and this might indicate she was not being flooded. In January 2013, it was announced that conservator Paul Mardikian had found evidence of a copper sleeve at the end of the Hunley's spar. This indicated the torpedo had been attached directly to the spar, meaning the submarine may have been less than 20 feet from Housatonic when the torpedo exploded. The short distance involved has led some researchers to theorize that Hunley's crew was killed by the resulting blast, though their conclusion has been disputed by US Navy and Naval History and Heritage Command researchers.

Sunday, April 29, 2018

Fokker DR-1 (Lola!) From The Great Waldo Pepper.

Here are some images of Revells 1/28 scale Fokker DR.1 in the markings of LOLA! flown by the fictional Character Ernst Kessler (Udet?) excellently portrayed by Bo Brundin from the Movie "The Great Waldo Pepper" 1975.
To make this model into LOLA! I not only had to create my own decals but I had to scratch out a new tail skid, take out the front section of the cowling as well as extend it by 1/4 inch. The checker board and stripe patterns are mask painted.
The literal Translation of "Du doch nicht!!"  is "Not You!!" but it has more meaning to it. Imagine saying "not you" with a smirk and a laugh. Something like a "you and what army" feel to it. This saying was also on the stabilizer of Ernst Udet's aircraft during World War One.
As far as movies go "The Great Waldo Pepper" is a good movie. Not great, but good. However when one is a 10 year old boy it becomes one of the greatest movies ever.
I hope to make more models from this movie in the future.

From Wikipedia"
The Great Waldo Pepper is a 1975 American drama film directed, produced, and co-written by George Roy Hill. Set during 1926–1931, the film stars Robert Redford as a disaffected World War I veteran pilot who missed the opportunity to fly in combat, and examines his sense of postwar dislocation in 1920s America. The cast also includes Margot Kidder, Bo Svenson, Edward Herrmann and Susan Sarandon. The Great Waldo Pepper basically depicts barnstorming activity in the 1920s and the accidents that led to aviation regulations by the Air Commerce Act.

World War I veteran Waldo Pepper (Robert Redford) feels he has missed out on the glory of aerial combat after being made a flight instructor. After the war, Waldo had taken up barnstorming to make a living. He soon tangles with rival barnstormer (and fellow war veteran) Axel Olsson (Bo Svenson).
Antagonistic at first, Waldo and Axel become partners and try out various stunts. One of these stunts, a car-to-aircraft transfer, goes wrong and Waldo is nearly killed after Axel is unable to climb high enough to clear a barn, slamming Waldo into it. Waldo then goes home to Kansas to be with on-again, off-again girlfriend Maude (Kidder) and her family. Maude, however, is not happy to see Waldo at first; because every time he returns from a barnstorming tour of the country, he is injured in some way. Eventually, however, they make up and become lovers once again. Meanwhile, Maude's brother Ezra (Ed Herrmann), a long-time friend of Waldo's since boyhood, promises to build Waldo a high-performance monoplane as soon as he is well enough to fly it. Waldo's goal is to become the first pilot in history to successfully perform an outside loop, and Ezra feels Waldo can do it with the monoplane.
In the meantime, Waldo rejoins Axel. The two eventually get a job flying for a traveling flying circus owned by Doc Dillhoefer (Philip Bruns). However, Dillhoefer's Flying Circus is in a slump, as there is very little attendance at the shows. So in an effort to attract bigger crowds, Dillhoefer hires Mary Beth (Susan Sarandon) to act as the show's new sexual attraction, in which she would climb out on the wing of an aircraft in flight wearing shredded clothes, thus allowing the wind to blow them off. But while performing this new stunt for the first time, Mary Beth freezes up on the wing, afraid to return to the cockpit. As Waldo (who did a "plane-to-plane transfer" in flight to climb aboard Mary Beth's aircraft) extends his hand to help Mary Beth back into the cockpit, she slips and falls off the wing to her death. As a result of Mary Beth's death, Waldo, Axel, and Dillhoefer are temporarily grounded by an inspector of the newly formed Air Commerce division of the federal government, Newt Potts (Geoffrey Lewis), a man from Waldo's wartime past.
Soon after, at the Muncie Fair, another tragedy occurs with the Dillhoefer Circus when Ezra (flying in place of the grounded Waldo) attempts the outside loop in the monoplane. He crashes on his third attempt, and the crowd rushes out of the stands to see the wreckage. Some of the spectators are smoking as they watch Waldo struggle to free Ezra. One of the cigarettes is flicked into gas leaking from the aircraft, igniting it. Waldo, helpless against the flames, kills Ezra with a piece of lumber. Because no one helped Waldo try to save him, Waldo goes on a rampage, jumps in one of Dillhoefer's aircraft and begins buzzing the crowd away from the wreckage and ends up crashing into a carnival area, which leads to his permanent grounding.
But that does not stop Waldo from flying for long. Waldo goes to Hollywood where Axel is working as a stuntman, and Waldo and Axel get jobs as stunt pilots in an upcoming film depicting the air battles of the Great War. Axel is cleared of his grounding and reinstated as a pilot; but being permanently grounded, Waldo has to use an alias so that he can dodge his grounding and fly in the film. Famous German air ace Ernst Kessler (Bo Brundin) has also been hired by the producers, as a consultant and to fly a Fokker Dr. I replica in the film.
During filming of a famous wartime duel, Waldo in a Sopwith Camel and Kessler in the Fokker—although their aircraft are disarmed—begin dogfighting in deadly earnest, using their aircraft as weapons, repeatedly playing chicken and colliding with each other. Eventually, Waldo damages Kessler's aircraft so badly that it's no longer airworthy, and Kessler surrenders to Waldo. Waldo and Kessler then salute each other and fly their separate ways.
The Great Waldo Pepper was a "passion project" for director George Roy Hill, who was himself a pilot. He and William Goldman had what Goldman described as "a huge falling out" during the middle of Goldman's writing the screenplay. Nevertheless, they managed to complete the project.
Frank Tallman flew the air sequences using actual aircraft – not models. Waldo flew a Standard J-1 biplane. A lot of the other aircraft in the film, including Axel's and those of Dillhoefer's, were Curtiss JN-4 biplanes. A number of de Havilland Tiger Moth biplanes, modified to look like Curtiss JN-4s, were used for the crash scenes.
The Great Waldo Pepper was filmed in Elgin, Texas. Aerial sequences were filmed at Zuehl Airfield near San Antonio, which is not too far from Fort Sam Houston, where the pioneering silent aviation classic Wings was shot in 1926-27. Several aerial scenes were also filmed over the Sebring, Florida, Airport (also known for the 12 Hours of Sebring, a Le Mans-style endurance car race). Hill, who flew as a U.S. Marine Corps cargo pilot in World War II, made sure stars Bo Svenson and Robert Redford did each sequence with no parachutes or safety harnesses. He wanted them to feel what it was like to fly vintage aircraft. Fortunately, no one was hurt during the air scenes.

The Great Waldo Pepper opened to mixed to good reviews, with the biggest praise going to the film's aerial sequences. Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote, "'The Great Waldo Pepper' is a most appealing movie. Its moods don't quite mesh and its aerial sequences are so vivid— sometimes literally breathtaking— that they upstage the human drama, but the total effect is healthily romantic." Leonard Maltin noted that the film disappointed at the box office, and, although compared to earlier efforts such as The Sting (1973), it was director George Roy Hill's "more personal" account that "... wavers uncomfortably between slapstick and drama."
The aerial sequences staged by Frank Tallman included the climactic fight between Waldo Pepper and Kessler. The scene featuring a replica Sopwith Camel and a replica Fokker Triplane, was loosely patterned after a real dogfight between German ace Werner Voss and a flight of aircraft led by British ace James McCudden.
Due to the attention to period details and the use of actual aircraft in the flying scenes, The Great Waldo Pepper is well-regarded among aviation films, receiving a "four-star" rating by film and aviation historians Jack Hardwick and Ed Schnepf. Released in a number of home media formats, there are no extra features in the latest DVD.
Former silent screen actress Viola Dana was an honored guest at the premiere of The Great Waldo Pepper. In 1920, Dana had begun a relationship with Ormer "Lock" Locklear, a daring aviator, military veteran and budding film star, reputed to be the prototype for the character of Waldo Pepper. Locklear died when his aircraft crashed on August 2, 1920 during a nighttime film shoot for the Fox Studios feature, The Skywayman.

Monday, April 23, 2018

'De Groene Draeck' (The Green Dragon)


Here are some images of Authentic Models Holland's 1/24 scale Lemsteraak 'De Groene Draeck' (The Green Dragon).
I never understood the tendency of some model kit companies to name their company in English but everything else is in their own language in this case Dutch.
This kit being an older kit was more difficult than one one might come to expect. First the instructions were all in Dutch. Second the parts were only printed onto the wood and not lazer or stamp cut. So the parts had to be cut out by hand. Anyway it wasn't easy.

From Wikipedia"

 The lemsteraak is a traditional Frisian sailing ship. The design comes from Lemmer , developed from the Frisian fishery (suitable for the Frisian inland waters).
 The first lemsteraak of which drawings are, was built in 1876 by the shipyard De Boer from Lemmer.  Originally the barge was intended as a fishing vessel on the Wadden Sea and the Zuiderzee , in particular the part between Friesland and the head of North Holland. They mainly fished for herring, although the actual fishing with herring was done.  The barge was used for transport and storage of the fish, provided by a (covered) bun on the front deck, which could be up to 2.5 meters in size.  For its speed, the barge was also used for the transport of other (living) fish, mussel seed to Zeeland and mussels from Zeeland to Belgium (up to Brussels).  They were also used early in the 19th century to transport live eel to London , where the barges even had their own berth. 
 Soon the well-to-do bourgeoisie found out that the lemsteraak was perfectly suitable as a pleasure yacht. The bun disappeared and in its place came a cabin placed behind the mast, often with decorative carvings and stained-glass windows. As a yacht, the barge was sailed with three paid powers. In this time, at competitions, the crew can be up to 10 men to be able to maneuver quickly and change sails.  In the first instance, these were converted fishing boats, but in 1907 the first lemsteraak was built at De Boer Shipyard, which was built as a yacht: the Johanna , who is still sailing in a reasonably original state like the Orion . 
In the run up to the 21st century, racing sailing with lemsteraken has received a renewed interest. The existing ships were improved and new ships got more profitable hulls and rigging. Since 2002, the VA class organization has been set up specifically for racing sailing with lemster tasks. The class is recognized by the Watersportverbond. Every race ship has a TVF (time settlement factor). This TVF was completely renewed in 2010 by order of the VA class organization. TU Delft was involved in this. The purpose of the TVF is to give each ship an equal chance of victory. Partly due to the competition sailors, the yacht designers do a lot of research using wind tunnels and towing tanks . The predictive software also plays an important role in the new development. Since 2000, the lemsteraken with the lay-out of the fisherman in the competition field are again in full view and even have the upper hand. The current competition ships are on average longer than those of the last century (now most of the ships are 15 - 17 meters long) The large cockpit of the fisherman offers a competition crew (average 10 people strong) a lot of space and at least as important, the center of gravity is lower than that of the hunting tasks, which increases the sail-carrying capacity.
 The curve with the high head indicates that the barge did not shy away from the rough and fast flowing water of the Wadden Sea and surroundings. The barge is built in an egg-shaped round with the tip to the rear.  The plane is slightly curved and the deepest point is found, as is the largest width, near the mast.  From the beginning of the 20th century, the hull of the barges was built in iron / steel, the first decades were riveted, later welded. The round line both in the longitudinal and the width direction not only ensure the good sailing characteristics but are also responsible for the high price. It takes time, effort and craftsmanship to give a steel plate two curvatures. As a result, a lemesteraak is considerably more expensive than, for example, a chimney .
The mast originally had the same length as the ship. Meanwhile, the barges have convinced a considerably higher mast. The rudder is equipped with a click , on yachts often replaced by a gilded rudder lion or other artistic carvings. The ship is equipped with narrow long sea ​​seams . 
The swords are often adjustable in the longitudinal direction of the ship. The lateral point can therefore be moved. The wind / lee effect can thus be influenced. A characteristic feature of most of the new racing boats is that the continuous keel is missing and there has been carried out with hedges against the extension of the stern and stern to the underwater ship. Due to the lack of the continuous keel and the desired stiffness of the hull, the construction of rafters, girders and the like is heavier.
 The lemsteraak is rigged with a large mainsail on a curved fork with loose trousers, that is to say, it is not attached to the boom at all . As a predecessor one sails a fairly large jib and javelin and sometimes a halfwinder , called in the world of round and flat-bottomed hunters or mizzen . [1]
The position and length of the mast largely determine the ratios of jib and mainsail. Nowadays the mast stands at 40 - 45% of the ship's length and the length of the mast is approximately 1.5 times the length of the ship. For racing vessels, the sail width at the level of the fork may not exceed 48% of the length of the bottom. In that sense, the mainsails of modern ships have become narrower. At the same time, the lifting has been lengthened, as a result of which the mainsail has received a higher yield. The big breeding is actually a genoa and here too the longer lifting has changed the height: width ratio, resulting in a higher yield.
The halfwinder or hunter is fed flying at a single fall. The neck should be briefly fed on the jib tree. The halfwinder is not passed along a stag but completely free. Depending on the cut of the sail it is used at about 80 to 140 degrees to the wind or 110 to 180 degrees. The sail can not be used in the wind. In general, the halfwinder up to and including Bft4 is well-paid.
The mizzen, also called hunter, breadwinner, is also fed from half-wind quarters. A tree, with the function of the boom, is attached to the back house. The lap is brought to the cockpit via a block on the rudder.
Water sails are also used for cross-country courses. Under the boom and also under the jib.
 De Groene Draeck is a lemsteraak that was built from 1956 to 1957 in the shipbuilding hall of De Amsterdamsche Scheepswerf G. de Vries Lentsch Jr. in Amsterdam . The launch was on June 4, 1957, the transfer on June 15, 1957. The ship then has a ladies cabin for four people, a men's cabin for two persons and two spare berths in the saloon. The front deck is intended for the permanent crew of the ship and has a separate entrance to the deck.
During construction the ship is equipped with a water-cooled Perkins 6-cylinder diesel engine of 65 hp at 2000 rpm. In addition, an air-cooled Lister diesel, which drives a separate alternator for the power supply, in addition to the propeller shaft generator . A bronze bilge pump can also be connected there, which can also be used for deck cleaning. A large battery set has also been installed in the engine room. The ship is then provided with a carbon dioxide fire extinguishing installation, which appeals at 90 °. In addition to the three underwater line pumping toilets (a private toilet for the crew) there are five washbasins, which then all went to the outside water.
To save space in the cockpit, the ship does not have a tiller , but a steering wheel . The wood carving (more sculpture) around the cockpit is carved in relief from the teak by C. Bischoff . At the helm is a winged dragon , designed by Katinka van Rood , teacher sculpture of the princess. In addition to the stick anchor, there are also a ploughshare anchor and two cat anchors on board. The navigation lights could also burn petroleum at the time, in case the power on board would drop out.
 The idea of ​​offering the princess a ship was elaborated in a committee consisting of representatives of companies who practiced seafaring, coastal shipping, navigation, towage, inland shipping, fishing, etc., and representatives of the Royal Netherlands Navy , rescue, water sports. , in addition to people who were interested in water sports, but also mayors who at that time held major water sports centers. De Groene Draeck was presented to HKH Princess Beatrix by this Comité Varend Nederland on the occasion of her 18th birthday in 1956. The sailing number is VA 18.
At the delivery in Muiden a fleet inspection of an estimated 500 yachts and boats was held, in a row in the harbor and the access channel.
At present the property falls under the Crown Goods Foundation of the House Oranje-Nassau which aims to promote that descendants of HM Queen Wilhelmina in the exercise of the Royal dignity have access to the necessary or desired movable physical matters. Upon liquidation of the foundation, the cases are transferred to the descendants who, according to the law, are their heirs. Director of the foundation is the Bearer of the Crown. The transfer of ownership appears to have happened tacitly around the throne . n 2007 there was a discussion about the maintenance costs of De Groene Draeck . In August of that year they always appeared to have been charged to the Ministry of Defense . In 2005 and 2006, these costs amounted to € 416,000. A new comparable ship costs € 800,000 to € 2,500,000 and maintenance is normally 50,000 to 70,000 euros per year. At the beginning of September 2007, the Ministry of Defense announced that it will continue to maintain and operate this ship, because this was promised when the national gift was offered.
On 11 May 2010, it was announced that Queen Beatrix would still pay a large part of the maintenance itself. She paid the extra maintenance for two years. The costs were estimated at € 326,000. 
Following questions from MP Pechtold , Prime Minister Rutte reported at the end of September 2015 that from 2010 to 2015, € 223,000 more was spent on maintenance than expected. And moreover that for the coming years the budgeted € 51,000 per year will not be spent, but € 95,000 
RTL Nieuws revealed in February 2016 that the maintenance costs for years stood for around 50,000 euros in the annual financial reports, but that in reality the costs were more than double each year. Prime Minister Rutte would have structurally incorrectly informed the House of Representatives about this.